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JSTOR helps people discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please contact email@example.com. SDO AMERIGAN AliT JOUJ^NAL. WHAT IS A SERVING MACHINE? It is a machine for making clothing and doing Sewing of all kinds* Does it make the same kind oi a stich that a laoy makes with her needle ? No; it makes other kinds. What are they called ? "Lockstitch,^' "Chain Stitch," and "Double Chain Stitch." T^Tiat is the difference ? Hero IS a picture of the Lock Stitch, as the thread looks when stitched into the cloth, only this is made larger and coarser that you may see it hotter. b ■■.i' .'■ X _'" \ -— ■ '■■■■-5 A''. viiS^^ l......=il. ^:v^\vAt^t^- -fft^:--;^ No. 1.— Lock Stitch. It is made with two threads, one on each aide Of the cloth) and ''locked" together in the cen* tre. Hence It is called the "Lockstitch." It cannot be pulled out, nor raveled, and there is only a single line of thread on each side of the seam. ts the seam strong and firm ? "^ Yes; just as lirm as the cloth when "Tproperly inade. It is the principal stit'ch ftiad^ fey-sewing machines suice their first inveiitionv How much thread does it take f jr a yard oi seam ? About two yards and one halK What is the principal machine that makes the Lock Stitxjh ? THlfi WHEELlilR & WILSON MACHINE. What is the ' ' Chain Stitch I " Here is a picture ol it ^^^ ^" No. 2.— Chain-Stitch. It is such a stitch as the ladies make In knit* tmg and crocheting, and it can bo raveled in the, same way. • ^- ' * Is it much used in Sewing? ' • No ; because the seams made with it pull out so easily. Think of garments coming apart when one is in the street How much thread does it take for a yard of «eaGi? About four and a half yards; or nearly twice as much as the * ' Lock-Stitch. " What is the principal machine making this stitch? The Wilcox & Gibbs. What is the " Double Chatn-stitch t" It is very much like the Single Chain Stitch, but is made'with two threads. •Here is a picture of it.. No. 3.— Double Chain Stitch. Can it be raveled ? Yes; and shows a ridge on one side. What makes that ridge on the under side of the seam ? It is the looping and knotting of the two threads used. Does that do any harm ? Yes; it weai'S off when garments are washed and ironed. It does not look well unless as em- broidery, No one would like a handkerchief hemmed with it, or -any seam made that shows. A handsome stitch, you kndw, only shows a sin- gle line of thread. How muck thread does it take Ibr a yard of ^eanit' '\'^""" About six and one half (6^) .yards. The most of any machine. What machine makes this sLitch ? The Grover «fc Baker. Who use Sewing Machines ? The Wheeler & Wilson are used by Seam- stresses, Dress Makers, Tailors, Manufacturers of Shirts, Collars, Skirts, Cloaks, Mantillas, Cloth- ing, Hats, Caps, Corsets, Ladies' Boots and Shoes, Linen goods. Umbrellas, Parasols, etc. They work equally well upon silk, linen, woolen and cotton goods, with silk, cotton or linen thread. They will seam, quilt, gather, hem, fell, cord, braid, bind, and perform every species of sewing, making a beautiful and perfect stitch, alike on both sides of the article sewed. How many Wheeler & Wilson machines have been sold? Nearly 300,000. : --• How fast can the machine work ? The Wheeler & Wilson Company has pre- pared tables showing, by actual experiments of four different workers, the time required. to stitch each part ot a garment by hand, and with the Wheeler & Wilson Sewing Machine. Subjoined is a summary of several of the tables:— BY MACHINE. Bt SANDj Hours. Minutos. Hours. Minutes. Geatlemen's Shirts 1" 16 U 26 TVOck Coots. ........2 88 16 35 Satin Vests 1 14 7 10 linen Vests .....0 48 5 14 Cloth Pants 61 6 10 Summer Pants..... 88 2 60 SilkDress... i. 1 13 8 27 Merino Dress .1 4 8 27 Calico Dross. » 57 6 37 Chemise.. ...1 i 10 31 MorednSkirt .......0 Sl> 7 28 Muslin Sldrt SO;* 7 1 Drawers............. 28 "4 6 Nijyht Dress.. 1, 7 io 2 Silk Apron...... ..0 16 4 16 Plain Apron.... »0 9 1 26 NUMBER OF STITCHES MADE PER MINUTE. By Hand. With Machine. Ratio. Stitching fine Linen 23 640 28 Stitching Satin. ...24 520 22 Stttching Silk ........ .30 650 18 Seaming fine Cloth 18 504 16 Patent Leather, fine Stitching, 7 176 25 Pitting Ladies' Gaiters , . 28 610 18 Stitching Shoe Vamps ........ 10 210 21 Binding Hats>.......k 33 374 11 WBen the machines are driven by power, this ratio is much higher— 1,600 and 2,000 stitches per minute not being an unusual average. Think how much time is saved by usijig the machines. MATHEMATICAL PROBLEMS. The proportion of thread used m making the various stitches is as follows? "Lock Stitch, 'U; "Chain Stitch,'M 8-lOths; " Double Chain Stilch," 2 5-lOths. Prob. 1. If a "Lock Stitch" machine-useslO cents worth of thread and silk in a day, how much would it use in a year of 300 working days? Answer, $30. Prob 2. How much wculd a " Chain Stitch " machine use in doing the same amount of sewing. Ans., $54: worth. Prob. 3. How much would a "Double Chain Stitch " machine use in doing the same amount of sewing? Ans., $75 worth. Prob. d. There will be ultimately at least a mil- lion of sewing machines used in the country ; at the^abovo rate, what value of thread and silk would be used annually if all of one kind were used? Ans. "Lock Stitch," $30,000,000; "Chain Stitch," $54,000,000; "Double Chain Stitch," $T5,000,000. Prob. 5. What value of thread would be wasted by the "Chain Stitch?" Ans. $24,000,000. Prob. 6. What value would be wasted by the "Double Chain Stitch?" Ans. $45,000,000. Prob. 7. If there be 6,000,000 families in the United States, how much would it cost to send each a weekly newspaper at $1,50. Ans, 9,000^^ 000..:. . ^^'^ ^ Prob. 8. How much to send a monthly Maga- zine at $2.00 Ans. $12,000,000. Prob. 9. How much would remain of the $45,000,000 of waste, for. Missionary, Educa- tional and Charitable purposes. Ans. 24, 000, 000. Is it wicked to waste things. Yes. Then what sewing machine should be used ? Ans. " Wheeler & Wilson's Lock Stitch Sew- ing Machine."'